Historie in oude kaarten

Door Bram Vannieuwenhuyze

Veel oude kaarten brengen een landschap in beeld of geven de ruimtelijke spreiding van ruimtelijke objecten en maatschappelijke fenomenen weer. Daardoor zijn het enigszins statische documenten. Maar vaak zit er toch beweging in oude kaarten: de zogenoemde ‘historiekaarten’ of ‘geschiedeniskaarten’ bevatten een zichtbaar verhaal (visueel narratief) over een bepaalde gebeurtenis of fenomeen uit het verleden. Anders gezegd: er gebeurt wat op de kaart, de kaart toont een bepaalde geschiedenis. Soms gebeurt dat louter visueel, soms enkel woordelijk en soms op beide manieren tegelijk.

260383864 Vaak staan er bijvoorbeeld mensen afgebeeld op oude kaarten en soms verrichten die bepaalde handelingen, zoals op de kaart van het westen van Afrika door Petrus Plancius uit circa 1592–1594 (Bijzondere Collecties UvA, OTM: HB-KZL O.K. 122). In het kaartbeeld of in de marge kan men tekst aantreffen die een bepaalde gebeurtenis in herinnering brengt en nader lokaliseert. Het in kaart gebrachte landschap bevat soms sporen van verdwenen gebouwen of duidt de plek aan waar nieuwe bouwwerken, straten, wijken, fortificaties, dijken, inpolderingen, transportinfrastructuur en dergelijke meer zullen worden aangelegd. Andere kaarten tonen dan weer plaatsen waar dramatische en traumatische gebeurtenissen als stadsbranden, aardbevingen, overstromingen, misdaden, verkeersongelukken, veldslagen, scheepsrampen of executies plaatsvonden. In 1671 gaf Herman Janssens bijvoorbeeld heel precies weer welke delen van de stad Roermond werden getroffen door de stadsbrand van 31 mei 1665 (Roermond, Historiehuis, 4752).

De UvA-studenten die in het academiejaar 2015–2016 het college Kaarten en atlassen als ‘cultuurdragers’ volgden, hebben elk een werkstuk gemaakt over zo’n historie- of geschiedeniskaart. Bedoeling was om na te gaan hoe de cartografische inhoud en vormgeving van de kaart zich verhield tot het toegevoegde verhaal. Meerdere vragen konden daarbij aan bod komen. Waarom vonden vroegere cartografen en uitgevers het nodig om het – in de meeste gevallen statische – kaartbeeld te ‘verstoren’ met een dynamische, visuele vertelling? Welke soorten gebeurtenissen werden op kaart gezet en waarom? Hoe werden beide elementen met elkaar verweven en welke opofferingen moesten daarvoor worden gedaan? In welke mate beïnvloedt de historie onze blik op de kaart? Of staan beide elementen los van elkaar? Uit welke bronnen werd informatie geput? Hoe werd de opeenvolging van gebeurtenissen weergegeven of geabstraheerd? En hadden historiekaarten dezelfde functies als de aanverwante nieuws- en historieprenten of lagen er ook andere oorzaken aan de basis van hun creatie?

De studenten selecteerden en bestudeerden uiteenlopende historiekaarten. Ik pik er drie voorbeelden uit.

rp-p-ob-79-142Studente Germaine Bijster rapporteerde over de kopergravure van Cornelis van Kittensteyn (1598–1652) met een vogelperspectief op het beleg van Haarlem in 1572–1573 (Rijksmuseum, RP-P-OB-79.142). De cartouche leert dat de kaart pas werd gegraveerd en gepubliceerd in 1626 en teruggaat op een niet bewaarde tekening van Pieer Jansz Saenredam (1597–1665). Vraag is natuurlijk waarom ruim vijftig jaar na de gebeurtenissen een historiekaart werd uitgebracht. Germaine Bijster koppelde de uitgave aan het patriotisme dat ontstond in de Republiek dankzij de succesvolle veldtochten van kersvers stadhouder en ‘stedendwinger’ Frederik Hendrik (1584–1647). Mogelijk verklaart de aversie van de vele in Haarlem neergestreken Vlaamse en Waalse vluchtelingen ook het commerciële succes van de prent.

21974369xStudent Floris van de Ruit koos voor de kaart getiteld Amsterdam uitgelegen aan de IJ-zijde, ontwerp van J. Galman, gelithografeerd door R. de Vries Jr. en uitgegeven door Frans Buffa en Zonen te Amsterdam in 1857 (Bijzondere Collecties UvA, OTM: HB-KZL 102.07.01). Boven de kaart – eigenlijk ook een vogelperspectief op de stad – bevindt zich een ontwerptekening van een brug over het IJ. Het gaat om het tweede voorstel in een reeks van 36 ontwerpen die Galman vanaf 1851 indiende. Kaart en ontwerptekening tonen dus geen gerealiseerde, maar een verbeelde geschiedenis. De voorstelling  van deze kaart is dus in zekere zin virtueel, maar wel instructief voor de hele geschiedenis van ideeën, pogingen en discussies die al decennia, ja zelfs eeuwen bestaan met betrekking tot de verbinding van het stadscentrum met Amsterdam-Noord.

rp-p-ob-77-071Minder vredelievende taferelen zijn te zien op de kaart die student Luuk Hoogewerf selecteerde. De prent, overduidelijk een collage, werd uitgegeven door Marcus Willemsz Doornick te Amsterdam omstreeks 1674–1675 (Rijksmuseum, RP-P-OB-77.071). Bovenaan bevinden zich kleine plattegronden van 27 gevallen vestingen onder de titel Afbeeldinge van alle de stercke steden die anno 1672 binnen de tydt van 2 maenden aen de France etc zyn overgegaen. Daaronder ziet men een kaart van de Republiek en aangrenzende regio’s, getiteld d’17 Neederlantse Proventie met de aengrensende landen als Vranckryck Ceule Munst[er] etc. De aandachtige kijker merkt tussen de vermelde twee delen tevens nog een impressie op van een vijftal zeeslagen uit de zogenoemde Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog, uitgevochten tussen de Nederlandse en Engelse vloot in 1672–1674.

Uitgebreide tekstuele uitleg en decoraties ontbreken op deze historiekaart, maar dat doet niets af aan haar rijke inhoud. Het is een multimediaal document, waarbij tekst, kaart en afbeelding met elkaar zijn vervlochten. Ze kunnen dus ook niet los van elkaar worden geïnterpreteerd. Het vreemde kaartbeeld, met de Republiek helemaal in de rechterbovenhoek gedrongen, valt zo wellicht te begrijpen vanuit de wens om ook de vijanden Keulen, Münster en het hart van Frankrijk (de Seine met Parijs) weer te geven. Het is echter verrassend dat Engeland, de vierde vijand, ontbreekt. Luuk Hoogewerf wijt deze keuze aan de ‘ongelukkige ligging’ van de hoofdstad Londen: de weergave van deze stad zou namelijk impliceren dat een heel deel van het kaartbeeld zou worden ingepalmd door de Noordzee.

Historiekaarten kunnen met recht en reden multimediale documenten worden genoemd: ze bevatten zowel cartografische als tekstuele, iconografische en meestal ook nog decoratieve informatie. Voor de makers was het een uitdaging om die diverse onderdelen in elkaar te weven, voor ons om deze weer te ontrafelen en de kaart in z’n geheel goed te interpreteren.

Prof. dr. B.J. (Bram) Vannieuwenhuyze is aan de UvA verbonden als bijzonder hoogleraar Historische Cartografie vanwege de Stichting Cartographiae Historiae Cathedra.

 

2016-11-09T14:56:07+00:00

About the Author:

Blogs van gastconservatoren, gastschrijvers en andere gastmedewerkers, van stagiairs en stagiaires, en van bibliotheekmedewerkers van andere afdelingen.

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